# Glossary for Roofing Contractor Exam

- Butterfly Roof

- Common Rafter
- Common Rafter is a rafter that extends perpendicularly from the top of an outside wall to the ridge board.
- Dutch Hip Roof
- Eave
- Eave is the edges of the roof which overhang the face of a wall and, normally, project beyond the side of a building.
- Exposure/Exposed Distance
- Exposure/Exposed Distance is the height of a shingle which is exposed to the elements, that area which is not covered by another shingle course.
- Factor
- Factor is a number used to multiply an input in order to obtain an output. These numbers are normally calculated based on more complex formulas to ease the complexity of common calculations.
- Factory Square
- Factory square is one square of 108 square feet.
- Gable and Dormer Roof
- Gable and Valley Roof
- Gable End
- Gable End is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches.
- Heel-cut rafters
- Heel-cut rafters is a notch cut at the end of a rafter to permit it to fit flat on a wall and on the top, doubled, exterior wall plate.
- Hip and Valley Roof
- Hip Jack Rafter
- Hip Jack Rafter is a rafter that extends from an outside wall to a hip rafter.
- Hip Rafter
- Hip Rafter is a rafter that extends diagonally from an outside corner of a building to the ridge board.
- Isosceles Triangle
- Isosceles Triangle is a triangle with (at least) two equal sides. In the figure above, the two equal sides have length and the remaining side has length.
- Mansard Roof
- Pitch
- Pitch is most often applied to the angle or slope of a roof and is defined as “rise over run”.
- Ridge board
- Ridge board is the board placed on the ridge of the roof onto which the upper ends of other rafters are fastened.
- Ridge Rafter
- Ridge Rafter is a common rafter that runs parallel to the ridge board.
- Rise
- Rise is the vertical change in height per unit of horizontal distance or run.
- Roofing Square
- Roofing square is 100 square foot of roof area or a 10 by 10 section of one roof.
- Shingle Course
- Shingle course is one row of shingles.
- Shingles
- Shingles are a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements.
- Slope
- Slope is a surface of which one end or side is at a higher level than another; a rising or falling surface.
- Span
- Span is a common roof having two slopes and one ridge with eaves on both sides.
- Total Rise
- Total Rise is the distance from the ground to the top of the finished floor.
- Total Span
- Total Span is an anthropometric determination of the distance between the tips of the middle fingers at maximum arm stretch without straining.
- Underlayment
- Underlayment is a water-resistant or waterproof barrier material that is installed directly onto your roof deck.
- Valley
- A valley is the intersection of two downward-sloping sections of roof (the opposite of a ridge).
- Valley Jack Rafter
- Valley Jack Rafter is a rafter that extends from the ridge board to a valley rafter.
- Valley Rafter
- Valley Rafter is a rafter that extends diagonally from an inside corner of a building to the ridge board.