Glossary for Roofing Contractor Exam

Butterfly Roof
Common Rafter
Common Rafter is a rafter that extends perpendicularly from the top of an outside wall to the ridge board.
Dutch Hip Roof
”Dutch Hip
Eave is the edges of the roof which overhang the face of a wall and, normally, project beyond the side of a building.
Exposure/Exposed Distance
Exposure/Exposed Distance is the height of a shingle which is exposed to the elements, that area which is not covered by another shingle course.
Factor is a number used to multiply an input in order to obtain an output. These numbers are normally calculated based on more complex formulas to ease the complexity of common calculations.
Factory Square
Factory square is one square of 108 square feet.
Gable and Dormer Roof
”Gable and Dormer
Gable and Valley Roof
”Gable and Valley
Gable End
Gable End is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches.
Heel-cut rafters
Heel-cut rafters is a notch cut at the end of a rafter to permit it to fit flat on a wall and on the top, doubled, exterior wall plate.
Hip and Valley Roof
”Hip and Valley
Hip Jack Rafter
Hip Jack Rafter is a rafter that extends from an outside wall to a hip rafter.
Hip Rafter
Hip Rafter is a rafter that extends diagonally from an outside corner of a building to the ridge board.
Isosceles Triangle
Isosceles Triangle is a triangle with (at least) two equal sides. In the figure above, the two equal sides have length and the remaining side has length.
Mansard Roof
Pitch is most often applied to the angle or slope of a roof and is defined as “rise over run”.
Ridge board
Ridge board is the board placed on the ridge of the roof onto which the upper ends of other rafters are fastened.
Ridge Rafter
Ridge Rafter is a common rafter that runs parallel to the ridge board.
Rise is the vertical change in height per unit of horizontal distance or run.
Roofing Square
Roofing square is 100 square foot of roof area or a 10 by 10 section of one roof.
Shingle Course
Shingle course is one row of shingles.
Shingles are a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements.
Slope is a surface of which one end or side is at a higher level than another; a rising or falling surface.
Span is a common roof having two slopes and one ridge with eaves on both sides.
Total Rise
Total Rise is the distance from the ground to the top of the finished floor.
Total Span
Total Span is an anthropometric determination of the distance between the tips of the middle fingers at maximum arm stretch without straining.
Underlayment is a water-resistant or waterproof barrier material that is installed directly onto your roof deck.
A valley is the intersection of two downward-sloping sections of roof (the opposite of a ridge).
Valley Jack Rafter
Valley Jack Rafter is a rafter that extends from the ridge board to a valley rafter.
Valley Rafter
Valley Rafter is a rafter that extends diagonally from an inside corner of a building to the ridge board.

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